Urban poor currently have 3 alternatives available, to for primary healthcare services. However, none of these options effectively meet their needs of affordable, accessible, high-quality care.
Urban public sector infrastructure is inadequate, and even where it does exist, suffers from acute shortage of staff and consummables. Charitable clinics are individual-centric, and therefore they lack scale and service quality guarantee. Consumers are forced to resort to a largely unregulated private sector (accounting for 80% of healthcare spending). However, private sector provisioning is expensive (average medical expenditure of US$4.3 per health episode), causing out-of-pocket health expenditure on private providers to constitute 15% of the families’ household income. Further, with doctors being incentivized to maximize financial gain rather than health outcomes, malpractice is rampant.